Wednesday, 6 June 2012

Double Trouble with Double-Barrell? (Part 1)

The Maxwell-Müller Family

The surname Maxwell-Müller has multiple variants so cross-referencing all possibilities
has been essential but discrepancies appear throughout documentation.

It has been almost impossible to work-out how the name came about.
The following research is limited to what is available from various on-line sources
It appears that the original surname was Mullër and the middle names were then incorporated.

(Census information has been taken from transcriptions so may not be completely accurate)

1841 Census (6th/7th June 1841)
Heriot Row, N 21, St. Stephen Parish, Edinburgh, Midlothian
John Martin Müller, Teacher of Music, age 30, born c1811, Scotland
Mary Müller, age 25, born c1816, Scotland
Harriet F. Müller, age 20, born c1821, Scotland
Charles W. M. Müller, Teacher of Music, age 19, born c1822, Scotland
Theodosia Müller, age 2,born c1839, Midlothian, Scotland.

The relationship between John, Harriet and Theodosia
are confirmed on the registration of Theodosia’s marriage in 1862

John, Mary and Charles may have been siblings and if so,
were the children of  Christian Miller , Musician and Mary Bigger.
(Only Charles’ birth  found in IGI, Batch No: C11821-8)

Theodosia Yonge Müller was the daughter of John Martin Müller, Professor of Music
and Harriette? Byers Mercer?
She married William Crawford, a Portrait Painter on 24th October 1862
at St. Paul’s (Episcopal) Chapel, York Place Edinburgh
Both her parents are listed as deceased on the marriage registration document.
The officiating Minister was Rev. Leonard Shafto Orde.

No birth or baptism documentation has been found for Theodosia,
neither has any marriage documentation been found for her parents.

At the age of 12 years old, Theodosia is listed on the 1851 Census as a scholar,
boarding at 23 Abercromby Street in Edinburgh.
(This may be Abercromby Place)
Head of Household was an Elizabeth Weir, Governess
This could possibly indicate that her parents had died as this address is only a few hundred yards
from Heriot Row where the family had been listed as living on the 1841 Census.

Abercromby Place and Heriot Row are a continuation of one street bordering Queen Street Gardens.

O.S. Six-inch, 1st Edition, Scotland, 1843-1882. Edinburghshire, Sheet 2, Survey Date: 1852, Publication Date: 1853.

By 1861, Theodosia (now listed on the 1861 Census with a middle initial of Y.)
aged 22 is still a boarder (and fund-holder) but is now living at 26 Royal Terrace.
Head of Household (as in 1851) was Elizabeth Weir, School Mistress.

O.S. Six-inch, 1st Edition, Scotland, 1843-1882. Edinburghshire, Sheet 2, Survey Date: 1852, Publication Date: 1853.

Theodosia Yonge Müller died age 84 on 6th August 1922
At 3 Boulevard de Grancy, Lausanne, Switzerland.
Unfortunately, there are no parents named on the (British Consulate) registration,
but she was listed as:
Theodosia Yonge Gow-Gregor, formerly Crawford nee Müller,
widow of a British Subject by birth
The informant is un-named, but was listed as the son of C. Gow-Gregor.

Theodosia’s first husband, William Crawford, A.R.S.A. died 2nd August 1869.
(The couple known to have had at least one child.)

Charles William Maxwell-Müller was possibly the uncle of Theodosia Maxwell-Müller
(No definite verification found except comparisons on 1841 Census)
He married Janet Marion Alexander Wardrop
On 4th March 1844 at Glasgow (Source: Daughter Leonora’s Birth Reg.)

The IGI lists a date for their marriage as 28th February 1844 at Ardrossan in Ayrshire
This may have been the calling the Banns (IGI Batch No: M11576-4)

Charles William Maxwell- Müller was born on 26th August 1821 in Dumfries
and christened there on 10th October 1821
Lawful son of Christian Miller, Musician and Mary Bigger.
(Also found in IGI, Batch No: C11821-8)

Their (Known) Children:

Jessie born (around) November 1844 (M.I., Camelon Cemetery)
Eliza (or Elise) Maxwell-Müller* was born 9th March 1846, Glasgow
[Mother listed as Marion] (Batch No: C11975-2)
Caroline Maxwell-Müller* was born 30th October 1847, Glasgow (Batch No: C11967-3)
Robert William Maxwell-Müller* was born 31st July 1849, Linlithgow
[Mother listed as Jessie] (Batch No: C119943)
Maria Maxwell-Müller* was born 9th February 1851, Linlithgow
[Mother listed as Jessie] (Batch No: C119943)
Joanna Gray Maxwell-Müller was born 18th March 1854, Edinburgh (Batch No: C119844)
Annabella Maxwell-Müller was born 18th May 1856, Peebles (Batch No: C117681)
Martin Maxwell-Müller was born 18th May 1856, Peebles (Batch No: C117681)
Doras Maxwell-Müller was born 3rd August 1857, Peebles (Batch No: C117681)
Charles Walton Maxwell-Müller was born 30th April 1859, Edinburgh (Batch No: C116851)
John Maxwell-Müller was born 10th March 1861, Stirling
Leonora Maxwell-Müller* was born 3rd July 1862, Hutchisontown, Glasgow
[Surname registered as Maxwell-Miller]
Barbara Maxwell-Müller was born 1875

* Eliza’s (or Elise) birthplace is listed as France on 1851 Census and as Paris, France on 1871 Census
Caroline’s birthplace is listed as Sardinia on 1851 Census and as Nice, France on 1871 Census
Robert William’s birthplace is listed as Leith on 1851 Census
Maria’s birthplace is listed as Leith on 1851 Census and as Linlithgow on the 1871 Census
Leonora’s birthplace is listed as Linlithgow on 1871 Census

Eldest daughter Jessie died 19th April 1849 aged 4½ years (M.I. Camelon Cemetery)

1851 Census (30th/31st March 1851)

80 High Street
, Linlithgow, West Lothian
Charles William Maxwell Müller, Professor of Music,
House Proprietor & Fund-holder, age 29, born c1822, Dumfries
Janet Marion Alexander Müller, Wife, Land & House Proprietor, age 28, born c1823, Glasgow
Eliza (or Elise) Maxwell-Müller, Daughter, age 5, born c1846, France (British Subject)
Caroline Maxwell-Müller, Daughter, age 3, born c1848, Sardinia (British Subject)
Robert William Maxwell-Müller, Son, age 1, born c1850, Linlithgow, West Lothian
Maria Maxwell-Müller, Daughter, age 7 months, born c1850, Linlithgow, West Lothian

Twins Annabella and Martin both died in infancy, May 1856 (M.I. Camelon Cemetery)

80 High Street is the address of ‘Occasions’.

O.S. 25 inch 1st Edition, Scotland, 1855-1882., Stirling Sheet XXIX.8 (Falkirk), Survey date: 1859, Publication date: 1865

1861 Census (7th/8th April 1861
Bonnyside House*, Falkirk (Landward), Stirlingshire
Gilbert Dewar, Head, Farmer (of 30 acres employing 13 men & 16 women),
age 25, born c1836, Queensferry, Midlothian
Charles W. M. Miller (Müller), Visitor, House Proprietor & Shareholder, age 39, born c1822, Dumfries
Thomas Maxwell, Ploughman, age 52, born c1809, Douglas, Dumfriesshire
Jane Maxwell, Domestic Servant, age 50, born c1811, Glenbuck, Ayrshire
Jane Maxwell, Domestic Servant, age 13, born c1848, Dalmeny, Linlithgowshire
Janet Maxwell, Scholar, age 10, born c1851, Dalmeny, Linlithgowshire
James Maxwell Hamilton, Boarder, age 1, born c1860, Corstorphine, Edinburgh

*It seems more likely that the address would have been Bonnyside Farm rather than Bonnyside House.
The two properties sit side by side and are both still in existence.

It is unknown if there was any family relationships between Charles
and Gilbert Dewar or any of the Maxwells listed.

The whereabouts of his wife Janet and children is unknown – he may have been boarding in the area
looking for a new home - as by 1871 he and his family were living at Glenyards.

Bonnyside Farmhsouse
Bonnyside House

When daughter Leonora was born on 3rd July 1862 at South Greenbank, Glasgow, her father Charles
who registered her birth gave his residence as Glenyards, Stirlingshire.

Her name is recorded as Leonora Maxwell MILLER

1871 Census (2nd/3rd April 1871)
Glenyards, Falkirk Landward, Stirlingshire (2nd/3rd April 1871)
Charles William Maxwell-Müller, Head, Professor of Music, age 48, born c1823, Dumfries, Dumfriess-shire
Elise Maxwell-Müller, Daughter, age 25, born c1846, Paris, France
Caroline Maxwell-Müller, Daughter, age 23, born c1848, Nice, France
Marie Maxwell-Müller, Daughter, Art Student, age 26, born c1845, Linlithgow, Linlithgowshire
Leonna Maxwell-Müller, Daughter, age 8, born c1863, Glasgow, Lanarkshire

The Land Ownership Commission 1872-73. (Published 1874)
The report of a Parliamentary Commission giving the names of every owner of land (of 1 acre or more) in each county.
The estimated acreage of Glenyards, Denny (owned by Charles William Maxell Müller)
was 68 acres and had a gross annual value of £113 and 2 shillings.

Eliza (or Elise) Maxwell-Müller died age 28 and was buried in Camelon Cemetery on 2nd December 1874
(M.I. Camelon Cemetery + Burial Record)

Joanna Gray Maxwell-Müller (wife of  R. C. [or G.] Fraser) died age 19 on 5th January 1874
(M.I. Camelon Cemetery)

Dora Maxwell-Müller died age 19 on 4th October 1876 (M.I. Camelon Cemetery)

1881 Census (3rd/4th April 1881)
Glenyards Cottages, Falkirk Landward, Stirlingshire
Thomas McH. Baird, Head, Pattern Filer, age 22, born c1859, Bothkennar, Stirlingshire
Jane Baird, Wife, age 22, born c1859, Tobermory, Isle of Mull, Argyll
Mary MacDonald, Visitor, Sister-in-Law, age 16, born c1865, Tobermory, Isle of Mull, Argyll
Also: Charles William Maxwell- Müller, Temporary Lodger, Proprietor of 70 acres, 45 arable, age 59
Born c1822, Dumfries, Dumfriess-shire

Charles Walton Maxwell-Müller died age 22 on 26th January 1882 (M.I. Camelon Cemetery)

1880/1881 Valuation Roll
Glenyards is listed as having 10 ‘residences’, these are (by reference in Valuation Roll):
House & Garden, Glenyards, Greenhill, Denny. Proprietor: C.W.M. Müller . Occupier: same.
Lands & Farm, Glenyards, Greenhill, Denny. Proprietor: C.W.M. Müller.
Occupier(s): Misses C. M. Muller & Executors of Miss C. M. Müller.
House & Garden, Glenyards, Greenhill, Denny.
Proprietor: C.W.M. Müller. Occupier: Empty.
House & Garden, Glenyards, Greenhill, Denny. Proprietor: C.W.M. Müller.
Occupier: Alexander Smith, Baker, Glasgow
House & Garden, Glenyards, Greenhill, Denny. Proprietor: C.W.M. Müller.
Occupier: Dugald Walker, Dairyman
House & Garden, Glenyards, Greenhill, Denny. Proprietor: C.W.M. Müller.
Occupier: A. W. Stewart, Grocer
House & Garden, Glenyards, Greenhill, Denny. Proprietor: C.W.M. Müller.
Occupier: James McAree, Joiner
House & Garden, Glenyards, Greenhill, Denny. (2) Proprietor: C.W.M. Müller.
Occupier: Empty
House & Garden, Glenyards, Greenhill, Denny. Proprietor: C.W.M. Müller.
Occupier: John Hutton, Manager, Spelter Co.
House & Garden, Glenyards, Greenhill, Denny. Proprietor: C.W.M. Müller.
Occupier: - - McIntyre, Farm Servant

1891 Census (5th/6th April 1891)
Glenyards Villa, Falkirk Landward, Stirlingshire
Charles William Maxwell- Müller, Head, Retired Professor of Music, age 69, born c1822, Dumfries, Dumfriess-shire
Also: Agnes Milne, House Keeper, age 39, born c1852, Greenock, Renfrewshire

Janet Marion Alexandra Maxwell-Müller (nee Wardrop) died on 9th April 1891
(M.I. Camelon Cemetery)

Charles William Maxwell-Müller died age 73 and was buried in Camelon Cemetery on 27th November 1894
(M.I. Camelon Cemetery + Burial Record)

The Royal Red Cross

The Order of St. Sava 5th Class (Similar medal for illustration purposes only)

The Nursing Record & Hospital World, July 29th, 1899

The Nursing Record & Hospital World, September 2nd, 1899

The following information following Leonora’s nursing career
was very kindly shared by
‘Norman’ (Royalredcross, Great War Online Forum)

Leonora Maxwell-Muller born 3 July 1862 in Glasgow.
Appointed to the temporary Army Nursing Service 12 March 1885
as a replacement for nurses going to Egypt.
Joined the Guards Hospital on the same day.
Appointed to the permanent service on 3 July 1887 but resigned her appointment
on 22 February 1888 to take up an appointment with the Indian Nursing Service.

Appointed Nursing Sister IANS 21 February 1888, promoted acting Superintendent 21 August 1890
and to Lady Superintendent 16 March 1899.
Completes two 5 year terms of service with the IANS ending 16 March 1899.
Awarded RRC in LG dated 25 July 1899
and invested by the Queen at Osborne House on 24 August 1899.

In 1903 (or 1904) married Arthur St. John, late Iniskillings, who she had met when the 2nd. Bn.
Was stationed in India, and took the surname of Maxwell-St.John.
From the following year until 1914 served as a member of the Indian Office Nursing Board
which interviewed and selected candidates for the Indian Nursing Service.

From 1914 to 1915 she served under the British Committee of the French Red Cross
as Matron of the Hopital Auxiliare No. 307 which was the Anglo-French Homeopathic Hospital in Paris.
It was established at Neuilly in the premises of a former sanatorium,  40-75 beds mostly British staff.
The hospital closed March 1916.
Later served with the Serbian Relief Fund in Corfu from 3 June 1916 to 13 September 1916
and in Macedonia as Matron of the SRF hospital there from 13 September 1916 to 8 September 1917.

Awarded Order of St. Sava 5th class by the Serbian government, confirmed in FO records.

Entitlement: RRC (Victoria), British War and Victory medals (FRX) Serbian St. Sava 5th.

Continued in 'Double Trouble with Double-Barrell?' Part 2



  1. There were at least seven Müller siblings: Robert M., Mary Elizabeth, John Martin, Isabella, Mary, Harriet Frances and Charles William Maxwell (Maxwell Müller was not originally hyphenated).
    These were the children of John (Johann) Christopher (not Christian) Müller and Mary Biggar. John Christopher had come to Scotland from Germany.
    The three boys, like their father, were all musicians.
    John Martin married Henrietta Fyers Mercer and they had one child, Theodosia Yonge Müller. Henrietta’s father, Captain Cavalié Shorthose Mercer, was from a noted military family as was, Lt-Col John Reed, her first step father. Her second step father was John F. D. Yonge, M.D., from the noted Yonge family of SW England. Her mother was Elizabeth Birt Alice Holmes from Cornwall.
    Henrietta died in 1839 aged about 21 and John Martin died in 1843 at about 36 years of age leaving Theodosia, then about 4 years old, an orphan. Charles was charged with Theodosia’s upbringing assisted by an Elizabeth Weir, presumably the same lady who was the principal (mistress) of the school she attended.
    Theodosia married first, William Crawford (my great, great uncle). They had two children, Archibald Allan and Williamina Theodosia. Theodosia married second, William Gow Gregor. Their children were Jean Playfair (born Scotland), Millicent Margaret, Helen Cazelet and Francis Cavalié Courthose (all born London).
    The family moved to Zurich for Archibald’s education as an electrical engineer and later settled in Liverno, Italy.
    I knew Theodosia died in 1922 but I did not know where or the exact date. The address given on the death extract is that of Jean and her husband. The informant would have been Francis who was known by his second name – i.e. Cavalié Gow Gregor.

    Please contact for substantiation of the above and further details if interested.
    Graeme H, Townsville, Qld., Australia

    1. Hello Graeme.

      Many thanks for the additional information!

      You may have gathered that I have no connection with the Maxwell-Müller family. My research is based on finding gravestones which interest/intrigue me and I hope in turn, that by publishing additional information, that it might be of interest to others or assist in helping with genealogical research.


  2. Hello MM

    Yes! I presumed you probably had no connection to the family although I was intrigued that you concentrated so much on Theodosia when she was not actually a member of the immediate Maxwell-Müller family.
    She is not a close member of our family, either, but I became interested in her firstly because of her middle name ‘Yonge’ – it was originally not at all clear how she might have been given this name shared by the well known family of SW England – and secondly she seemed to be very aware of her heritage despite being left an orphan at such an early age. The more I ferreted, the more I found of interest. Off and on over the last year or two I have acquired quite an amount of material about her family – more on ancestors than descendents – and am now in the concluding phase of writing it up. So, if any one is interested by all means make contact.
    One point I will emphasise: like you I fell into the trap of presuming that Harriet F. listed in the 1841 census was John Martin’s wife (Harriet being a diminutive of Henrietta and the middle initial being the same). I should have known better because a descendent of William and Theodosia had already given me information suggesting that Henrietta had died prior to 1841. In fact, Henrietta Fyers Mercer/Müller was John Martin’s wife; Harriet Frances Müller was a younger sister.
    Some of what is known regarding John Christopher comes in fact from a graveyard inscription (Memorials of St. Michael's: The Old Parish Churchyard of Dumfries‎ - Page 234
    by William M'Dowall - Cemeteries). [Well beyond your ‘patch’ I suspect] The commentary states:
    “Robert Biggar, mason, died 14th January 1798, aged 48, and his wife, Isabella M'Whir, are commemorated by another table monument; which also bears the name of a skilful musician, John Christopher Muller, and their daughter Mary, to whom he was married. Herr Muller came to Dumfries, we believe, as bandmaster of the local militia, and eventually set up his staff as a resident in the Burgh. The inscription states that he was born at Gisparsleban, Thuringia, and that he was ‘a professor of music’.”
    His home town, I think, should be Gispersleben and of course he was not an academic, rather a professional musician. I was interested just recently to listen to a radio program lamenting the passing of the ‘old style musician’ versed in all aspects of music, including the mastery of several instruments, composition and arrangement. John Martin and Charles William Maxwell were musicians of that ilk. Charles was also for a number of years Grand Director of Music to the Grand Lodge of Scotland. John was organist at St Pauls Episcopal Church Edinburgh, where William Crawford and Theodosia were later married. He was also partner in a music business with David Hamilton (organ builder to the Queen in Scotland) who was organist at the other Episcopal Church in Edinburgh, St John’s. The older brother, Robert was a concert pianist, evidently well known not only in Great Britain but also on the Continent. In later life he was appointed pianist to the King of Saxony and he was also piano teacher to their Royal Highnesses, the Princess Mary and her mother the Duchess of Cambridge.
    Thankyou again for contributing to making gravestone inscriptions more accessible and for the extra research you have put in – I hope it is also fun. There is still much that I do not know about Theodosia but the information on the death extract you provided rounds off what I have managed to put together thus far quite nicely. I note that you infer you are relying fairly heavily on readily available internet sources – which by reason of my location is also my situation. Are images of death extracts such as you have located accessible via the internet?


    1. Again Graeme, I can't thank you enough for 'putting more beef on the bare bones'.

      You are quite correct that I use as much freely available information as possible, but at the same time, there's always occasions where copies of the official registrations just have to be purchased - my curiosity gets the better of me EVERY time!

      If there's anything I have that you'd like a copy of, please get in touch direct through rather than on the blog and I can send you copies of what I have.

      There is more to the story which I didn't publish, so if you're interested you are most welcome to a copy of any bits and pieces.


  3. I have come across your blog after a search for Robert Biggar, Mason as he is my great grandfather x 4. We are descended from his son John Biggar, brother to Mary Biggar. I have only recently discovered this and read on Rootschat that both Mary Biggar and her husband John Christopher Muller died in 1832 due to a cholera outbreak. This appeared to be from the publication mentioned above ie Memorials of St. Michael's by W McDowell. I have not seen a copy of this publication myself but wondered if this is in fact the case whether all the children you mention above could be theirs as they were born after the date they are supposed to have died. I have not managed to find a date of death yet.

  4. Hi Diana,

    I haven't carried out any further research on this family, but on the IGI, I can only find Charles William's birth and one more 'potential' child - Mary, daughter of John C. Millar and Mary Biggar, christened at Troqueer, Kircudbrightshire 27th May 1815.

    The Memorials of St. Michael's has been digitized and can be found here:

    Hope you find what you're looking for!